Francisco Ribeiro received a PhD grant from FCT to work on “Explaining Software Faults in Source Code”. This work will be supervised by Prof. João Saraiva (University of Minho, Braga) and Prof. Rui Maranhão (IST, University of Lisbon).
Rui Rua received a PhD grant from FCT to work on “Green Software in the Large: Energy-driven Techniques, Tools and Repositories“. This work will be supervised by Prof. João Saraiva (University of Minho, Braga) with the collaboration of Prof. Cristina Videira Lopes (Univ. of California at Irvine, USA).
On Haskell and Energy Efficiency – Luís Gabriel Lima, Francisco Soares-Neto, Paulo Lieuthier, Fernando Castor, Gilberto Melfe, and João Paulo Fernandes
Recent work has studied diverse affecting factors on software energy efficiency.
This paper attempts to shed light on the energy behavior of programs written in a lazy, purely functional programming language, Haskell.
We conducted two in-depth and complementary studies to analyze the energy efficiency of programs from two different perspectives: strictness and concurrency.
We found that small changes can make a big difference. In one benchmark, under a specific configuration, choosing the MVar data sharing primitive over TMVar can yield 60% energy savings. In another benchmark, TMVar can yield up to 30% savings over MVar. Thus, tools that support developers in refactoring a program to switch between primitives can be very useful. In addition, the relationship between energy consumption and performance is not always clear. In sequential benchmarks, high performance is an accurate proxy for low energy consumption. However, for one of our concurrent benchmarks, the variants with the best performance also exhibited the worst energy consumption. We report on deviating cases.
To support developers, we have extended existing performance analysis tools to also gather and present data about energy consumption. Furthermore, we provide a set of guidelines to help Haskell developers save energy.
Catalog of energy patterns for mobile applications – Luis Cruz and Rui Abreu
Software engineers make use of design patterns for reasons that range from performance to code comprehensibility. Several design patterns capturing the body of knowledge of best practices have been proposed in the past, namely creational, structural and behavioral patterns. However, with the advent of mobile devices, it becomes a necessity a catalog of design patterns for energy efficiency. In this work, we inspect commits, issues and pull requests of 1027 Android and 756 iOS apps to identify common practices when improving energy efficiency. This analysis yielded a catalog, available online, with 22 design patterns related to improving the energy efficiency of mobile apps. We argue that this catalog might be of relevance to other domains such as Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet of Things. As a side contribution, an analysis of the differences between Android and iOS devices shows that the Android community is more energy-aware.
To the Attention of Mobile Software Developers: Guess What, Test your App! – Luis Cruz, Rui Abreu, and David Lo
Software testing is an important phase in the software development lifecycle because it helps in identifying bugs in a software system before it is shipped into the hand of its end users. There are numerous studies on how developers test general-purpose software applications. The idiosyncrasies of mobile software applications, however, set mobile apps apart from general-purpose systems (e.g., desktop, stand-alone applications, web services). This paper investigates working habits and challenges of mobile software developers with respect to testing. A key finding of our exhaustive study, using 1000 Android apps, demonstrates that mobile apps are still tested in a very ad hoc way, if tested at all. However, we show that, as in other types of software, testing increases the quality of apps (demonstrated in user ratings and number of code issues). Furthermore, we find evidence that tests are essential when it comes to engaging the community to contribute to mobile open source software. We discuss reasons and potential directions to address our findings. Yet another relevant finding of our study is that Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipelines are rare in the mobile apps world (only 26% of the apps are developed in projects employing CI/CD) – we argue that one of the main reasons is due to the lack of exhaustive and automatic testing.
EMaaS: Energy Measurements as a Service for Mobile Applications -Luis Cruz and Rui Abreu
Measuring energy consumption is a challenging task faced by developers when building mobile apps. This paper presents EMaaS: a system that provides reliable energy measurements for mobile applications, without requiring a complex setup. It combines estimations from an energy model with – typically more reliable, but also expensive – hardware-based measurements. On a per scenario basis, it decides whether the energy model is able to provide a reliable estimation of energy consumption. Otherwise, hardware-based measurements are provided. In addition, the system is accessible to the community of mobile software practitioners/researchers in the form of a Software as a Service. With this service, we aim at solving current problems in the field of energy efficiency in mobile software engineering: the complexity of hardware-based power monitor tools, the reliability of energy models, and the continuous need of data to build energy models.
Rui Alexandre Afonso Pereira concluded his PhD on October, 29th 2018, at Informatics Department (DI) of the University of Minho (DI-UMinho), with a thesis entitled “Energyware Engineering: Techniques and Tools for Green Software Development“. He was advised by Professors João Saraiva and Jácome Cunha (DI/UMinho) and his research was also hosted by the research center HASLab/INESCTEC.
Abstract – Energy consumption is nowadays one of the most important concerns worldwide. While hardware is generally seen as the main culprit for a computer’s energy usage, software too has a tremendous impact on the energy spent, as it can cancel the efficiency introdued by the hardware. Green Computing is not a new field of study, but the focus has been,
until recently, on hardware. While there has been advancements in Green Software techniques, there is still not enough support for software developers so they can make their code more energy-aware, with various studies arguing there is both a lack of knowledge and lack of tools for energy-aware development.
This thesis intends to tackle these two problems and aims at further pushing forward research on Green Software. This software energy consumption issue is faced as a software engineering question. By using systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to the development, operation, and maintenance of software we defined several techniques, methodologies, and tools within this document. These focus on providing software developers more knowledge and tools to help with energy-aware software development, or Energyware Engineering.
Insights are provided on the energy influence of several stages performed during a software’s development process. We look at the energy efficiency of various popular programming languages, understanding which are the most appropriate if a developer’s concern is energy consumption. A detailed study on the energy profiles of different Java data structures is also presented, along with a technique and tool, further providing more knowledge on what energy efficient alternatives a developer has to choose from. To help developers with the lack of tools, we defined and implemented a technique to detect energy inefficient fragments within the source code of a software system. This technique and tool has been shown to help developers improve the energy efficiency of their programs, and even outperforming a runtime profiler.
Finally, answers are provided to common questions and misconceptions within this field of research, such as the relationship between time and energy, and how one can improve their software’s energy consumption. This thesis provides a great effort to help support both research and education on this topic, helps continue to grow green software out of its infancy, and contributes to solving the lack of knowledge and tools which exist for Energyware Engineering.
jStanley: Placing a Green Thumb on Java Collections – Rui Pereira, Pedro Simão, Jácome Cunha, João Saraiva
Software developers are more and more eager to understand their code’s energy performance. However, even with such knowledge it is difficult to know how to improve the code. Indeed, little tool support exists to understand the energy consumption profile of a software system and to eventually (automatically) improve its code.
In this paper we present a tool termed jStanley which automatically finds collections in Java programs that can be replaced by others with a positive impact on the energy consumption as well as on the execution time. In seconds, developers obtain information about energy-eager collection usage. jStanley will further suggest alternative collections to improve the code, making it use less time, energy, or a combination of both. The preliminary evaluation we ran using jStanley shows energy gains between 2% and 17%, and a reduction in execution time between 2% and 13%.
The article “Using Automatic Refactoring to Improve Energy Efficiency of Android Apps“, authored by Luis Cruz and Rui Abreu, was awarded the Best Paper Award at CIbSE’18.
The ever-growing popularity of mobile phones has brought additional challenges to the software development lifecycle. Mobile applications (apps, for short) ought to provide the same set of features as conventional software, with limited resources: such as, limited processing capabilities, storage, screen and, not less important, power source. Although energy efficiency is a valuable requirement, developers often lack knowledge of best practices. In this paper, we study whether or not automatic refactoring can aid developers ship energy efficient apps. We leverage a tool, Leafactor, with five energy code smells that tend to go unnoticed. We use Leafactor to analyze code smells in 140 free and open source apps. As a result, we detected and fixed code smells in 45 apps, from which 40% have successfully merged our changes into the official repository.
Helping developers write energy efficient Haskell through a data-structure evaluation – Gilberto Melfe, Alcides Fonseca, João Paulo Fernandes
How a program is written has implications in the energy consumption of the running system, with economical and environmental consequences.
In this context, understanding the energy consumption of operations on data-structures is crucial when optimizing software to execute under power constricted environments. Existing studies have not focused on the different components of energy consumption that processors expose, rather considering the global consumption.
To understand the relationship between CPU and memory energy consumptions with execution time, we instrument a microbenchmark suite to collect such values, and we analyze the results.
Our benchmark suite is comprised of 16 implementations of functional sequences, collections and associative collections while measuring detailed energy and time metrics. We further investigate the energy consumption impact of using different compilation optimizations.
We have concluded that energy consumption is directly proportional to execution time. Additionally, DRAM and Package energy consumptions are directly proportional, with the DRAM representing between 15 and 31% of the total energy consumption. Finally, we also conclude that optimizations can have both a positive or a negative impact on energy consumption.